I have not written directly about the most serious of psychiatric diseases. Schizophrenia is…
Personality Disorders Type 2 and 3
Part 2 – Personality Disorders: Schizoid
The Mayo Clinic has a post defining this personality disorder hence, p.d. This is an uncommon disorder and not to be confused with schizophrenia. There are some symptoms similar to simple schizophrenia. The difference is that in the latter there are delusions and hallucinations. Delusions are abnormal perceptions such as thinking the CIA is after you or religious perception such as feeling you are Jesus Christ.
Trouble functioning in a job or school but may do well if mostly working alone
In touch with reality so they do not have delusions or hallucinations
Speech makes sense but tone is flat
As I said the symptoms have some overlap with schizophrenia as well as with a different p.d., schizotypal.
The cause of schizoid p.d. is totally unknown. It most likely is shaped by childhood experiences rather than brain chemistry abnormalities. They may be a genetic basis as risk factors for this p.d. are higher if a parent or other relative has schizoid p.d., schizotypal p.d. or schizophrenia.
Something I was totally unaware of is that there is a risk that schizoid p.d. may morph into schizotypal p.d. or schizophrenia.
Part 3 – Personality Disorders: Schizotypal
Such a similar word as used in p.d. in Part 2, I think a different name should be used. Perhaps the reason is the differences are such that one can transform into the other, usually in one direction, schizoid to schizotypal.
Again, the Mayo Clinic has a short post about Schizotypal p.d. These people present as odd, eccentric, without friends, misinterpret other’s motivations and distrust others. Like the disorder above there is no place for medications and only limited psychotherapy is recommended just to establish trust with the therapist.
Five of the following symptoms make the diagnosis.
Incorrect interpretation of event in a negative way.
Unkempt or wearing oddly matched clothes
Believe they have special powers such as mental telepathy or believe in superstitions
Hallucinations as sensing an absent person’s presence
Speech that is vague or rambling
Paranoid thoughts such as not trusting the loyalty of others
Flat affect and limited emotional responses
Onset may be in the teens or young adults. They are liable to being bullied or teased.
AS mentioned before this p.d. may be confused with schizophrenia. In schizotypal p.d. there can be delusions but they are short-lived, not as frequent nor as intense. Most of the time they are in touch with their reality.
Causes and risk factors are much as in schizoid p.d. People with both these disorders can have co-existing depression or anxiety which certainly are amenable to medications.
In conclusion some believe that schizoid, schizotypal and schizophrenia are a spectrum in order of severity. Certainly if there are any delusions treatment with antipsychotics is necessary.